Pain in Endometriosis

Pain in Endometriosis By Dr. Youngran Park

Endometriosis is a chronic and debilitating condition characterized by chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and infertility. It affects approximately 10% of women globally and more than 60% of women diagnosed with endometriosis report CPP. However, the mechanisms underlying the associated pain…

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Non-coding RNAs and Endometriosis

Non-coding RNAs and Endometriosis By Ellen Tumimbang

Non-coding RNAs may have a fundamental role in the development of endometriosis. Non-coding transcripts have regulatory roles in the expression of protein-coding genes, thus regulate several signaling pathways. Based on their length, these non-coding RNAs are classified into two main classes:…

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Mental stress promotes mice endometriosis

Mental stress promotes mice endometriosis By Bahar Yuksel

Endometriosis is a disease for which pathogenesis and progression are not fully understood. Inflammation is one of the key candidates that might be related to the creation or progression of endometriosis. In the study conducted by Kawakita et al from…

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Is there a commonality between endometriosis and systemic lupus?

Is there a commonality between endometriosis and systemic lupus? By Murat Osman

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect many organs including the skin, joints, the central nervous system, and the kidneys. Women of childbearing age and certain racial groups are at increased risk to develop the condition.…

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White blood cell neutrophils link to immunosuppressive environment in ovarian endometrioma

White blood cell neutrophils link to immunosuppressive environment in ovarian endometrioma By Yu Yu

Recently the contribution of neutrophils to the pathogenesis of endometriosis has been suggested. Several observations fuelled this suggestion, such as the accumulation of neutrophils in the peritoneal fluid of ovarian endometriosis; neutrophil extracellular traps were found in the peritoneal fluid of…

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Oxidative stress leads to elevated cytokines, excessive structural damage and angiogenesis

Oxidative stress leads to elevated cytokines, excessive structural damage and angiogenesis By Yu Yu

Endometriosis is characterized by elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species, which is then believed to upregulate inflammatory cytokines. Reactive oxygen species also regulate the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), which is closely linked with immune responses.…

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Regulation of Inflammation in Endometriosis

Regulation of Inflammation in Endometriosis By Dr. Youngran Park

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent and multifaceted gynecological condition. Unfortunately, this disease frequently causes chronic and cyclic pelvic pain. Though there are several treatments are available, there is not an actual cure for this disease. Therefore, the development of new therapy…

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Endometrioma, follicular fluid, oocyte and embryo

Endometrioma, follicular fluid, oocyte and embryo By Yu Yu

It is estimated that infertility occurs in more than one-third of women with endometriosis. How endometriosis affects fertility, however, is not clearly known. The follicular fluid provides a microenvironment for oocyte development and impacts embryo quality. Thus, it is believed…

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Endometriosis and Women’s Tendency Towards Blood Clotting

Endometriosis and Women’s Tendency Towards Blood Clotting By Özge Özkaya

Women with ovarian endometriomas have an abnormally increased tendency toward blood clotting, study shows. Researchers think that this is due to the inflammatory nature of endometriosis. So abnormal coagulation parameters could be used to diagnose endometriosis, however, more detailed studies…

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Endometriosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Endometriosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease By Selma Oransay

Endometriosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease show the same pathologic mechanism in terms of endothelial dysfunction. Tan et al. from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada reviewed the literature aiming to determine whether women…

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Endometriosis signaling: the role of IL-34

Endometriosis signaling: the role of IL-34 By Yu Yu

An increasing number of studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of endometriosis is mediated by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)−17, which promoted the formation and progression of endometriosis by up-regulating angiogenesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. IL-34 is a newly described…

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Natural killer cells receptor expression in endometriosis

Natural killer cells receptor expression in endometriosis By Yu Yu

Increasingly, studies have reported that endometriosis pathogenesis is related to defect in immune functions. The data also points to the impaired function of natural killer (NK) cells, leading to less cytotoxic NK cell activity in endometriosis. Similar to B and…

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The role of inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and apoptosis in the pathophysiology of endometriosis

The role of inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and apoptosis in the pathophysiology of endometriosis By Dr. Youngran Park

Endometriosis is a very common gynecological disorder affecting approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women, and it is known by the abnormal growth of endometrial stroma and glands outside the uterus. Though the pathogenesis of endometriosis is not clearly understood so far,…

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Immune environment of endometriosis

Immune environment of endometriosis By Yu Yu

The results from the past decade of research have shown that an altered pro-inflammatory immune environment in endometriosis is believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. Because of changes in the immune microenvironment in the disease state, the…

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M1 and M2 macrophages in ovarian endometriomas

M1 and M2 macrophages in ovarian endometriomas By Yu Yu

Macrophages play an essential role in the immune response during inflammation and have been implicated in diseases such as inflammatory conditions and cancers. Broadly, macrophages are classified into M1 and M2. The M1 macrophages are pro-inflammatory, and in contrast, the…

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Could Vitamin D Be Linked to Endometriosis?

Could Vitamin D Be Linked to Endometriosis? By Özge Özkaya

There does not seem to be a cause-effect relationship between vitamin D status and endometriosis. In other words, too much or not enough vitamin D does not seem to be associated with endometriosis. This is according to a review of…

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Antibiotic therapy for endometriosis

Antibiotic therapy for endometriosis By Yu Yu

Current treatments for endometriosis are surgery and hormone therapy; however, these approaches may have significant side effects and do not prevent a recurrence. Therefore, alternative treatment modalities for endometriosis is needed. Recently, the idea that endometriosis may be influenced by…

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Correlation between Treg cells and peritoneal lesions in women with ovarian endometrioma

Correlation between Treg cells and peritoneal lesions in women with ovarian endometrioma By Yu Yu

It is increasingly suggested that defective immune response is responsible for the survival and development of ectopic endometrial cells into endometriosis. In women with endometriosis, the immune system fails to create an inflammatory process that destroys endometrial cells at the…

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Anti-inflammatory cytokines: a new horizon in endometriosis with possible clinical relevance

Anti-inflammatory cytokines: a new horizon in endometriosis with possible clinical relevance By Nasuhi Engin Aydin

Scientists led by Dr. Li from Shangai PRC, have made a comprehensive review of anti-inflammatory cytokines related to the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a recent issue of Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences.    Inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of endometriosis,…

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Immunologic Disorder in the Progression of Endometriosis

Immunologic Disorder in the Progression of Endometriosis By Dr. Youngran Park

Endometriosis becomes increasingly a health-social problem. However, definite diagnostic biomarkers and more effective treatments for endometriosis are still missing to this day.  Many researchers focus on the peritoneal microenvironment of patients with endometriosis, especially the immunological microenvironment. Recently, Jørgensen et…

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Crocin improves endometriosis

Crocin improves endometriosis By Yu Yu

Crocin is a carotenoid chemical compound in the flowers crocus and gardenia. It is one of the most important gradients in saffron. Previous studies showed that crocin may have multiple pharmacological effects including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation. There are several…

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The relationship between periodontal disease and endometriosis

The relationship between periodontal disease and endometriosis By Irem Onur

Thomas et al. have recently studied the association between endometriosis and periodontal disease which may share a common pathogenesis, and have published it in the Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. The authors screened a total of50 women; 25 with and 25…

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Local inflammation and disease severity in endometriosis

Local inflammation and disease severity in endometriosis   By Yu Yu

During inflammation, immune cell receptors recognize endogenous molecules called danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or ‘alarmins’. This process reflects tissue damage and is mediated upon cell death in the condition of strong inflammation. HMGB1 and IL-33 are important DAMP molecules. Recently,…

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The association of endometriosis and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma

The association of endometriosis and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma By Irem Onur

Endometriosis is well known to cause chronic inflammation of the serosa and incite mesothelial hyperplasia. Although multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts and well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma were reported to be associated with endometriosis, the association of malignant mesothelioma has not been reported…

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Immune dysregulation in endometriosis

Immune dysregulation in endometriosis By Yu Yu

The connection between endometriosis and the immune system has long been proposed. However, to date, there is no real consensus on whether immune adaptations actually facilitate endometriotric lesion progression or they are a consequence of endometriosis re-occurrence. Thus, this article…

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Anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of "Quercetin" on endometriosis

 Anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of By Dr. Youngran Park

Quercetin is a major flavonol that is mainly derived from capers and involves a daily consumption of approximately 25–50 mg through various vegetables. In recent studies, Quercetin is reported as a functional compound in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This compound…

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A novel neurotransmitter, Ninj1, has been found to be expressed in endometriosis

A novel neurotransmitter, Ninj1, has been found to be expressed in endometriosis By Irem Onur

Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and adenomyosis, and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b are highly expressed in them. Inflammation and subsequent hyperinnervation are involved in the pathophysiology of pain generation. High levels of expression of various…

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IL-37 regulates ectopic endometrial stromal cells to prevent endometriosis

IL-37 regulates ectopic endometrial stromal cells to prevent endometriosis By Dr. Youngran Park

Endometriosis has been identified as a chronic inflammatory disease. It has been shown that in the plasma and peritoneal fluid, women with endometriosis exhibit aberrant numbers of immune cells and concentrations of cytokines and chemokines that promote a chronic inflammatory…

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Toxic Pelvic Cavity and Infertility

Toxic Pelvic Cavity and Infertility By Murat Osman

Endometriosis is a disease defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity and has an incidence of approximately 10% in women of reproductive age. Thus, it is an important consideration in chronic pelvic pain and infertility…

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A Balancing Act: How Endometriosis Invades the Body

A Balancing Act: How Endometriosis Invades the Body By Murat Osman

Endometriosis is a disease defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Ectopic endometrial tissues have been shown to have some features that mimic malignancy. For example, endometriosis can invade surrounding structures and attach to surfaces such…

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Detecting endometriosis using peripheral blood

Detecting endometriosis using peripheral blood By Yu Yu

Laparoscopic visualization of endometriotic lesions with histological confirmation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of endometriosis. However, this diagnostic procedure, due to the need for laparoscopy and variability of disease/symptoms, can have a major delay up to 8-10 years…

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Expert discussion on mechanisms of endometriosis development and progression

Expert discussion on mechanisms of endometriosis development and progression By Yu Yu

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the occurrence and worsening of endometriosis. Classically, it is believed that retrograde menstruation causes endometriosis. However, the presence of endometriosis in newly menarcheal or pre-menarcheal girls cannot fully explain this early onset endometriosis.…

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Inflammatory molecules promote the migration and invasion of endometriosis cells

Inflammatory molecules promote the migration and invasion of endometriosis cells By Yu Yu

Increasing scientific evidence has shown that the immune and inflammatory mechanisms play a central role in the progression of endometriosis by allowing a permissive environment that allows migration, adhesion, proliferation, and invasion of endometrial cells in ectopic regions of the…

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New Target for Endometriosis Treatment?

New Target for Endometriosis Treatment? By Özge Özkaya

NR4A1 could be a novel target for the treatment of endometriosis, according to a study published in the scientific journal Cell Physiology and Biochemistry. NR4A1 is a receptor protein involved in cell division, inflammation, and programmed cell death. The development…

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Altered Immunity in Endometriosis

Altered Immunity in Endometriosis By Yu Yu

In recent years, there has been increased attention on the role of immune system in endometriosis development. Normally, immune reactions are supposed to destroy endometrial cells seeding in the peritoneal cavity. Nonetheless, in endometriosis, these cells are able to evade,…

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Abnormal Regulation of Pathways Seen in Endometriosis

Abnormal Regulation of Pathways Seen in Endometriosis By Kasthuri Nair

Sikora et al., a team from the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, published a study in the Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics titled “The role of complement components C1q, MBL and C1 inhibitor in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.” It has been said that complement system…

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Non-coding RNAs in endometriosis

Non-coding RNAs in endometriosis By Dr. Youngran Park

The pathophysiological mechanisms causing the development of endometriosis, which is a heterogeneous disease remain enigmatic, and a lack of effective biomarkers necessitates surgical intervention for diagnosis. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, which are important regulators of cellular function, have been implicated…

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Could Endometriosis Be Caused by Bacteria?

Could Endometriosis Be Caused by Bacteria? By Özge Özkaya

A new concept called the bacterial contamination hypothesis in endometriosis has been proposed for the first time by researchers in Japan. This means that new potential therapies approaches could exist for this condition in addition to the conventional estrogen-suppressing therapies.…

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Endocrine and inflammatory factors in current understanding of endometriosis

Endocrine and inflammatory factors in current understanding of endometriosis By Yu Yu

There are three forms of endometriosis: peritoneal, ovarian, and deep infiltrating. All three forms consist of endometriotic lesions containing endometrial glands, stroma, nerves, blood vessels, and inflammatory cells. Endometriosis symptoms can be accounted by these elements and the involving organs.…

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Irritable bowel syndrome and endometriosis.

Irritable bowel syndrome and endometriosis. By Dr. Youngran Park

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and endometriosis are two diseases affecting a significant part of the female population, either together or individually, with remarkable consequences in the quality of life. Several studies suggest an epidemiological association between them. Their association may…

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Inflammatory mediators in endometriosis pathogenesis

Inflammatory mediators in endometriosis pathogenesis By Yu Yu

Proinflammatory cytokines play an important function in mediating inflammatory reactions in chronic inflammatory diseases and in endometriosis. IL-32 is a new proinflammatory cytokine, and can also induce other proinflammatory cytokines in the body such as Tumour Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and…

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Elevated Neutrophil Traps in Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis

Elevated Neutrophil Traps in Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis By Yu Yu

Neutrophils are a part of the innate immune system and act as a first-line host defense system by phagocytosis, intracellular killing and more recently describes mechanism involving extracellular killing by means of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These traps are defined…

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Are there any risk factor associated with the progression of endometriosis to ovarian cancer?

Are there any risk factor associated with the progression of endometriosis to ovarian cancer? By Murat Osman

Endometriosis is a disease whereby endometrial glands proliferate outside of the endometrial lining. Apart from causing significant morbidity, It has been found that endometriosis is associated with an increased risk of progression to endometroid and clear cell ovarian cancer. However,…

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Stress affects endometriosis negatively

Stress affects endometriosis negatively By Demet Candaş Green

Stress contributes to many chronic health problems – endometriosis is one of them. Given that women with endometriosis are under more stress and pain, often with the added stress of infertility, it is important to understand the relationship between stress…

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The Role of Natural Killer Cells in the Development of Endometriosis Unravelled

The Role of Natural Killer Cells in the Development of Endometriosis Unravelled By Özge Özkaya

Specialized immune cells called natural killer cells found in the peritoneal fluid of women with severe endometriosis may facilitate the development of the disease, according to a study published in the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.   This finding could help…

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Association between blood inflammatory markers and the risk of endometriosis

Association between blood inflammatory markers and the risk of endometriosis By Yu Yu

Previous studies have suggested that aberrant immunologic and inflammatory responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid collected from endometriosis contains elevated immune cells that may enhance the survival of endometriosis by secreting growth factors and…

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A Two-Wave Molecular Mechanism for Endometriosis Disease Progression

A Two-Wave Molecular Mechanism for Endometriosis Disease Progression By Kasthuri Nair

Kobayashi et al. recently published a review paper in Molecular Medicine Reports titled “Pathogenesis of endometriosis: The role of initial infection and subsequent sterile inflammation,” which discusses at length the role of non-specific bacterial infection and sterile inflammation in the…

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Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 modulates Inflammation in Endometriosis

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 modulates Inflammation in Endometriosis By Yu Yu

The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a serine/threonine kinase, which transduces signals within the cell in response to various environmental stimuli. In doing so, it mediates intracellular signaling of cytokine production, cell proliferation, and apoptosis amongst many other cellular…

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Interleukin-6 Involved in the Development of Endometriosis

Interleukin-6 Involved in the Development of Endometriosis By Özge Özkaya

A chemical produced by the body called Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and known to be involved in inflammation also seems to promote the development of endometriosis. This is according to a study by Chinese scientists published in the journal Medical Science Monitor.…

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Plant Compound May Protect Against Endometriosis

Plant Compound May Protect Against Endometriosis By Özge Özkaya

Marrubiin, a compound derived from a plant in the mint family called white horehound may have protective effects against endometriosis, according to a study published in the journal Molecular Medicine Reports.  Marrubiin is the main analgesic, or painkiller compound found…

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Agents Causing Red Blood Cell Lysis Worsens Endometriosis

Agents Causing Red Blood Cell Lysis Worsens Endometriosis By Kasthuri Nair

Endometriosis is a painful disease characterized by inflammation and the presence of pro-oxidation factors. These pro-oxidation factors are also released when red blood cells (RBCs) lyse. A paper titled “Dapsone hydroxylamine-mediated alterations in human red blood cells from endometriotic patients”…

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T-Cell Dysfunction May Worsen Endometriosis

T-Cell Dysfunction May Worsen Endometriosis By Murat Osman

Researchers from the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan, have found that T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg) may be the reason for the formation of the chronic inflammatory environment involved in endometriosis, a study published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &…

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TFF3 May Be Involved in Endometriosis Research Suggests

TFF3 May Be Involved in Endometriosis Research Suggests By Özge Özkaya

Levels of a protein called TFF3 are significantly increased in the peritoneal cavity (the abdominal space) of women with endometriosis, found a study published in the scientific journal Reproductive Sciences. This increase was in line with levels of other known…

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Immune substances in peritoneal fluid for endometriosis diagnosis and armamentarium

Immune substances in peritoneal fluid for endometriosis diagnosis and armamentarium By Yu Yu

Cytokines are immune substances secreted by a broad range of cells within the body, including immune cells like the macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, mast cells, and non-immune cells such as the endothelial cells and fibroblasts. They are important in…

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