Dr. Youngran Park

Dr. Park received her Ph.D. in Pathobiology from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at JHU. She received Pathology Young Investigator Day Award at 2016 and 2017 for her study of ARID1A function in DNA repair. She strongly believes the spirit of translational research is to alleviate human suffering through research.

Fibrogenesis in endometriosis: The role of neuropeptides

Endometriosis is a debilitating gynaecologic disease affecting 6–10% of women of reproductive age. Endometriotic lesions are known to be hyperinnervated due to neurogenesis resulting from neutrophins secreted by endometriotic lesions and possibly platelets. These neutrophins seem to preferentially favor the production of sensory neurons at the expense of sympathetic neurons. The striking histological relationship between nerves and the extent of fibrosis in the endometriosis lesions raise the possibility that nerves, especially sensory nerves, may facilitate the development and fibrogenesis of…

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Anti-angiogenic treatment for endometriosis

Endometriosis is a benign, estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder. The wide variety of surgical and medical treatment has been applied for treating endometriosis, but a definitive therapy has not been achieved so far. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Among them, gene therapy recently has shown that it can be practically attainable for endometriosis. Especially, developing a delivery system using cell-specific receptors is getting more attention to increase the specificity of gene therapy. Dr. Kiselev group, Ott Research Institute from…

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Endometrial single cells to contribute preexisting endometriosis.

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease. This disease affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women and 20% to 50% of infertile women. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of endometriosis. Retrograde menstruation is believed to take part by the implantation of endometrial tissue and formation of endometriotic lesions at ectopic sites, which is established through various rodent and nonhuman primate models in a manner mimicking retrograde menstruation. However, the ability of single endometrial cells to participate in endometriotic processes has…

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Endometriosis and nuclear receptors

It is well recognized that endometriosis is a steroid-dependent disorder. In endometrial stromal cells, progesterone regulates retinoic acid production and action. Retinoids also act via a number of nuclear receptors (NRs) and are involved in normal endometrial function and endometriosis. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1 and ESR2) and progesterone receptor (PGR) are the key steroid receptors involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. However, the precise roles of NRs in steroid responsiveness and other signaling pathways are not well understood.  Here,…

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Epithelial Mutations in Endometriosis

A substantial body of epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between endometriosis and epithelial ovarian cancer, but a plausible underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, Dr. Bulun group from Northwestern University provide a focused review of the literature and discuss the implications of recent genetic breakthroughs linking endometriosis and ovarian cancer. The recent sequencing studies demonstrated that driver mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, ARID1A, and other genes have been found in the epithelium of intrauterine endometrial tissue, ovarian and extra-ovarian pelvic endometriosis…

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Choosing the Right Technique for Deep Colorectal Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic condition, histologically defined by the presence of ectopic endometrium outside the endometrial cavity. Three clinical presentations of endometriosis have been described and could coexist in the pelvis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Deep bowel endometriosis is defined by the infiltration of the muscular layer of the rectum, rectosigmoid junction or the sigmoid. The surgical management of bowel endometriosis is a real challenge. Until today, no consensus has been reached concerning the surgical…

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Impact of Menstrual Symptoms on Everyday Life

Menstrual symptoms, including heavy menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and significant perimenstrual mood disorders, are common gynecological conditions. About 30% of women consider their menstrual bleeding heavy, and 34–94% of women experience pain during their menstrual period. Menstrual symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life and account for substantial healthcare use. Annual costs for patients with heavy menstrual bleeding are estimated to exceed $ 2000 per patient, mainly due to work absence and lost productivity. Currently, only little is known…

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Impact of Endometriosis-Related Adhesions on Quality of Life among Infertile Women

Endometriosis is considered the most common cause of pelvic adhesions in women. It is considered one of the main underlying causes of the development of adhesions. Adhesions are bands of connective tissue, which connect two different tissues that are normally separated thus, interfering with the function of the organs that are affected. Adhesions may form as a result of endometrial implants bleeding into the surrounding area and causing an inflammatory reaction. There are many complications associated with endometriosis-related adhesions such…

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Polymorphisms of STAT4 gene in the pathogenesis of endometriosis

Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases in reproductive-age women characterized by the occurrence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Researchers have put forward numerous hypotheses to explain ectopic endometrial tissue, and the bulk of the evidence indicates that immunological alterations influence women's susceptibility to endometriosis. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a member of the Janus kinase-STAT pathway and plays a central role in interferon signaling which is related to immunological processes.…

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Immunologic Disorder in the Progression of Endometriosis

Endometriosis becomes increasingly a health-social problem. However, definite diagnostic biomarkers and more effective treatments for endometriosis are still missing to this day.  Many researchers focus on the peritoneal microenvironment of patients with endometriosis, especially the immunological microenvironment. Recently, Jørgensen et al studied peritoneal cytokine profiles in the endometriosis patients and found that the long-term existence of chronic inflammatory conditions in the microenvironment can induce accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and enhance the endometriosis progression. On the other hand, various reports have…

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Long non‐coding RNA, Epithelial mesenchymal transition, and Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen‐dependent inflammatory gynecologic disease and requires attention. However, an in‐depth understanding of the latent pathogenesis of endometriosis development and its new innovative therapeutics are urgently needed. Epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to the special biological process of epithelial cells transforming into a mesenchymal cell phenotype and has been receiving widespread attention for endometriosis. The loss of the epithelial phenotype provides good conditions for the development of endometriosis lesions. ZEB1 is an EMT‐related transcription factor that subsequently promotes the…

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Endometrioma, Fertility, and Assisted Reproduction

Endometriosis can negatively impact a woman’s health and quality of life. Surgery has been considered the primary treatment to overcome infertility in cases of ovarian endometrioma. Patients struggling with endometriosis often pursue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) due to fertility issues. The management of ovarian endometrioma, which is a prevalent phenotype, is challenging and controversial, especially in the context of ART. In the present review, Dr. Garcia-Velasco group from Spain aim to assess the latest findings concerning fertility issues, endometrioma, and…

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Exosome: a new avenue for endometriosis research

Endometriosis affects 10% of reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this disease remains mysterious, with a lack of effective biomarkers necessitating surgical intervention for diagnosis. This creates an urgent need for accurate noninvasive diagnostic tests and the identification of effective therapeutic targets to improve clinical outcomes for women with endometriosis. Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between the etiology of endometriosis and immune dysregulation in endometriosis patients. Exosomes, range in size from 30 to 100 nm in diameter, are a…

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Mistletoe as a Potential Candidate for Endometriosis Treatment

Endometriosis, one of the common benign gynecologic disorders, is defined as the ectopic presence of endometrial cells outside of the uterine cavity. Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, the most accepted hypothesis is that endometrial cells pass through retrograde menstrual flow and implant in the abdominal cavity.  Some investigators suggested that peritoneum of endometriosis patients might attribute a pro-inflammatory environment, promoting the occurrence of endometriosis. Among various kinds of molecules which are related to the development and progression…

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The role of circulating microRNA's in Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder. This disease affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women and 20% to 50% of infertile women. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is an essential transcriptional regulator coordinately regulating multiple genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis. SF-1 is known to play an extraordinarily important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate SF-1 expression in endometriosis are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals. Recently,…

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Can we Inhibit the Survival of Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecological inflammatory disease. The current anti-estrogen therapies can be prescribed only for a short time due to the undesirable side effects on menstruation, pregnancy, bone health, and recurrence. Therefore, the development of specific therapy which targets abnormal molecular pathways in endometriosis is highly required. ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT are the well-studied survival pathways which regulate proliferation, survival, and apoptosis of the cells by integrating multiple intracellular signaling modules. The role of ERK1/2 or AKT signaling in proliferation,…

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Anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of "Quercetin" on endometriosis

Quercetin is a major flavonol that is mainly derived from capers and involves a daily consumption of approximately 25–50 mg through various vegetables. In recent studies, Quercetin is reported as a functional compound in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This compound also shows a wide range of apoptotic effects on cancer cells. Specifically, Quercetin enhances cell death and inhibits cell proliferation of hormone-related cancers including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer. However, the curative function of quercetin in human endometriosis…

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Does ovarian endometrioma damage the ovarian reserve?

Ovarian endometriomas are commonly present in 17% to 44% of women with endometriosis and are often associated with infertility and pelvic pain. There are several treatment options including surgical treatment. Cyst excision is associated with better results in terms of postoperative pain relief, pregnancy rates, and cyst recurrence rates compared to non-excisional techniques. A recent meta-analysis, however, has questioned the safety of the excisional technique, since it may be associated with a significant postoperative reduction of ovarian reserve as measured…

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Does deep infiltrating endometriosis affect sexual activity?

Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases in women of reproductive age, and pelvic pain and infertility are the most frequent complications. There are three different type of endometriosis lesions; superficial lesions, deep lesions, and ovarian cysts. In the patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), the depth of infiltration seems to correlate with the intensity of pain, commonly presented as the form of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, CPP, dyschezia, and dysuria. Therefore, DIE is strongly associated with a significant reduction…

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Programmed cell death 4 suppresses endometriosis by inhibiting autophagy and NF-κB/MMP2/MMP9 signal pathway

Endometriosis is a kind of benign disease but shares many similar features with cancers, such as abnormal cell migration, invasion, and unrestrained growth. It has been known that some genes are expressed differentially in eutopic endometrium of EM patients compared with control endometrium. However, the cellular and molecular characteristics of eutopic endometrium in patients with EM have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies show that PDCD4 is a novel tumor suppressor which plays important roles by inhibiting protein translation or…

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