Dr. Youngran Park

Dr. Park received her Ph.D. in Pathobiology from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at JHU. She received Pathology Young Investigator Day Award at 2016 and 2017 for her study of ARID1A function in DNA repair. She strongly believes the spirit of translational research is to alleviate human suffering through research.

MicroRNA Inhibitor as an Endometriosis treatment

Endometriosis is a well-known estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder. This disease affects approximately 20% to 50% of infertile women and 10% of reproductive-aged women resulting in infertility and pelvic pains.  In order to find endometriosis-specific treatment, various studies have been tried to identify molecular signatures which are ectopically expressed in endometriosis patients. Unfortunately, current medical treatment is not endometriosis specific but targets sex steroids broadly. Therefore, precision medicine, which reduces side effects significantly, is highly required for medically treating endometriosis in the…

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Impact of Endometriosis on Embryo Development

Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent disorder which affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. There are many endometriosis-related problems, but infertility is one of the well-known issues which should be handled and understood. Despite numerous trials, the mechanisms and pathology of how endometriosis specifically leads to infertility are largely unknown. Therefore, more investigations are required for a better understanding. Several studies have been suggested that endometriosis is associated with unfavorable conditions for fertility such as impaired fertilization, elevated oxidative stress,…

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DNA repair defects and Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent disorder and highly associated with inflammation. It is well suggested that endometriosis increases the risks of developing cancers such as ovarian, breast, endocrine, and colorectal cancers. Compared to cancer, there are many similarities in endometriosis. Well-known characteristics in cancer such as genomic instability, the increased mutation rate in oncogenes, microsatellite instability, tissue-specific gene copy number changes, and lower expression of DNA repair enzymes are highly implicated in endometriosis. DNA repair deficiency got lots of attention in endometriosis.…

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Plausible biomarkers for noninvasive endometriosis diagnosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent benign gynecological disease characterizing ectopic deposition of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It affects about 10% of reproductive-aged women and causes enormous negative impacts on the quality of lives. However, we do not have a non-invasive diagnostic procedure until now. Furthermore, there is no single published biomarker which was clinically validated. According to the previous study, the ideal biomarker is the one which is specific to the disorder, can be detected early in the…

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The Effect of Imbalanced Progesterone Receptors-A/B on Gelatinase Expressions in Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a benign disease which affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women and is one of the most common reasons for infertility. Though the underlying mechanisms of disease progression have not been clearly understood, it develops as a consequence of ectopic implantation of retrograded menstrual tissue. Endometriosis significantly decreases the quality of life. The frequency of endometriosis in females with complaints of pain, infertility, or both symptoms is between 35 and 60%. Among the many problems caused by endometriosis, the…

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Seven Hormonal Biomarkers for Diagnosing Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an inflammatory condition characterized by implantation and invasive growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Although it is benign, endometriosis has cancer-like features, a mutation profile similar to that of ovarian cancer, and increased ovarian cancer risk. Therefore, it is of great significance to correctly diagnose endometriosis. Laparoscopy with histology of excised endometriosis lesions remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but it also has numerous disadvantages such as high cost, need for general anesthesia, and risk of…

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Novel inhibitors of estrogen biosynthesis

Endometriosis is a chronic benign disease which is estrogen-dependent. Estradiol creates a positive feedback loop with the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators, which sustains further disease establishment and causes the pain symptoms. However, hormone therapies do not cure definitively endometriosis, because of recurrence and lack of evidence that hormonal drugs improve spontaneous fertility of patients with endometriosis. Recently, several studies provided strong evidence that aberrant in-situ estrogen biosynthesis occurs in endometriosis. Therefore, the development of new molecules acting on such local…

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The Wnt/b-catenin signaling in endometriosis

Endometriosis is a very common gynecological disorder, which affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women, and is one of the most common reasons for infertility. The normal endometrium undergoes cyclical remodeling under control of sex hormones secreted by ovaries- estrogen and progesterone. It has been accepted that estrogen and progesterone were regulated by Wnt/b-catenin signaling. In a recent study, inhibition of Wnt/b-catenin signaling repressed the main characteristics of endometrial cells involved in the development of endometriosis including cell migration, proliferation, and…

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Fibrogenesis in endometriosis: The role of neuropeptides

Endometriosis is a debilitating gynaecologic disease affecting 6–10% of women of reproductive age. Endometriotic lesions are known to be hyperinnervated due to neurogenesis resulting from neutrophins secreted by endometriotic lesions and possibly platelets. These neutrophins seem to preferentially favor the production of sensory neurons at the expense of sympathetic neurons. The striking histological relationship between nerves and the extent of fibrosis in the endometriosis lesions raise the possibility that nerves, especially sensory nerves, may facilitate the development and fibrogenesis of…

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Anti-angiogenic treatment for endometriosis

Endometriosis is a benign, estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder. The wide variety of surgical and medical treatment has been applied for treating endometriosis, but a definitive therapy has not been achieved so far. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Among them, gene therapy recently has shown that it can be practically attainable for endometriosis. Especially, developing a delivery system using cell-specific receptors is getting more attention to increase the specificity of gene therapy. Dr. Kiselev group, Ott Research Institute from…

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Endometrial single cells to contribute preexisting endometriosis.

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease. This disease affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women and 20% to 50% of infertile women. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of endometriosis. Retrograde menstruation is believed to take part by the implantation of endometrial tissue and formation of endometriotic lesions at ectopic sites, which is established through various rodent and nonhuman primate models in a manner mimicking retrograde menstruation. However, the ability of single endometrial cells to participate in endometriotic processes has…

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Endometriosis and nuclear receptors

It is well recognized that endometriosis is a steroid-dependent disorder. In endometrial stromal cells, progesterone regulates retinoic acid production and action. Retinoids also act via a number of nuclear receptors (NRs) and are involved in normal endometrial function and endometriosis. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1 and ESR2) and progesterone receptor (PGR) are the key steroid receptors involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. However, the precise roles of NRs in steroid responsiveness and other signaling pathways are not well understood.  Here,…

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Epithelial Mutations in Endometriosis

A substantial body of epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between endometriosis and epithelial ovarian cancer, but a plausible underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, Dr. Bulun group from Northwestern University provide a focused review of the literature and discuss the implications of recent genetic breakthroughs linking endometriosis and ovarian cancer. The recent sequencing studies demonstrated that driver mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, ARID1A, and other genes have been found in the epithelium of intrauterine endometrial tissue, ovarian and extra-ovarian pelvic endometriosis…

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Choosing the Right Technique for Deep Colorectal Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic condition, histologically defined by the presence of ectopic endometrium outside the endometrial cavity. Three clinical presentations of endometriosis have been described and could coexist in the pelvis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Deep bowel endometriosis is defined by the infiltration of the muscular layer of the rectum, rectosigmoid junction or the sigmoid. The surgical management of bowel endometriosis is a real challenge. Until today, no consensus has been reached concerning the surgical…

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Impact of Menstrual Symptoms on Everyday Life

Menstrual symptoms, including heavy menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and significant perimenstrual mood disorders, are common gynecological conditions. About 30% of women consider their menstrual bleeding heavy, and 34–94% of women experience pain during their menstrual period. Menstrual symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life and account for substantial healthcare use. Annual costs for patients with heavy menstrual bleeding are estimated to exceed $ 2000 per patient, mainly due to work absence and lost productivity. Currently, only little is known…

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Impact of Endometriosis-Related Adhesions on Quality of Life among Infertile Women

Endometriosis is considered the most common cause of pelvic adhesions in women. It is considered one of the main underlying causes of the development of adhesions. Adhesions are bands of connective tissue, which connect two different tissues that are normally separated thus, interfering with the function of the organs that are affected. Adhesions may form as a result of endometrial implants bleeding into the surrounding area and causing an inflammatory reaction. There are many complications associated with endometriosis-related adhesions such…

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Polymorphisms of STAT4 gene in the pathogenesis of endometriosis

Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases in reproductive-age women characterized by the occurrence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Researchers have put forward numerous hypotheses to explain ectopic endometrial tissue, and the bulk of the evidence indicates that immunological alterations influence women's susceptibility to endometriosis. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a member of the Janus kinase-STAT pathway and plays a central role in interferon signaling which is related to immunological processes.…

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Immunologic Disorder in the Progression of Endometriosis

Endometriosis becomes increasingly a health-social problem. However, definite diagnostic biomarkers and more effective treatments for endometriosis are still missing to this day.  Many researchers focus on the peritoneal microenvironment of patients with endometriosis, especially the immunological microenvironment. Recently, Jørgensen et al studied peritoneal cytokine profiles in the endometriosis patients and found that the long-term existence of chronic inflammatory conditions in the microenvironment can induce accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and enhance the endometriosis progression. On the other hand, various reports have…

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Long non‐coding RNA, Epithelial mesenchymal transition, and Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen‐dependent inflammatory gynecologic disease and requires attention. However, an in‐depth understanding of the latent pathogenesis of endometriosis development and its new innovative therapeutics are urgently needed. Epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to the special biological process of epithelial cells transforming into a mesenchymal cell phenotype and has been receiving widespread attention for endometriosis. The loss of the epithelial phenotype provides good conditions for the development of endometriosis lesions. ZEB1 is an EMT‐related transcription factor that subsequently promotes the…

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Endometrioma, Fertility, and Assisted Reproduction

Endometriosis can negatively impact a woman’s health and quality of life. Surgery has been considered the primary treatment to overcome infertility in cases of ovarian endometrioma. Patients struggling with endometriosis often pursue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) due to fertility issues. The management of ovarian endometrioma, which is a prevalent phenotype, is challenging and controversial, especially in the context of ART. In the present review, Dr. Garcia-Velasco group from Spain aim to assess the latest findings concerning fertility issues, endometrioma, and…

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