Dr. Youngran Park

Dr. Park received her Ph.D. in Pathobiology from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at JHU. She received Pathology Young Investigator Day Award at 2016 and 2017 for her study of ARID1A function in DNA repair. She strongly believes the spirit of translational research is to alleviate human suffering through research.

Immunologic Disorder in the Progression of Endometriosis

Endometriosis becomes increasingly a health-social problem. However, definite diagnostic biomarkers and more effective treatments for endometriosis are still missing to this day.  Many researchers focus on the peritoneal microenvironment of patients with endometriosis, especially the immunological microenvironment. Recently, Jørgensen et al studied peritoneal cytokine profiles in the endometriosis patients and found that the long-term existence of chronic inflammatory conditions in the microenvironment can induce accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and enhance the endometriosis progression. On the other hand, various reports have…

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Long non‐coding RNA, Epithelial mesenchymal transition, and Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen‐dependent inflammatory gynecologic disease and requires attention. However, an in‐depth understanding of the latent pathogenesis of endometriosis development and its new innovative therapeutics are urgently needed. Epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to the special biological process of epithelial cells transforming into a mesenchymal cell phenotype and has been receiving widespread attention for endometriosis. The loss of the epithelial phenotype provides good conditions for the development of endometriosis lesions. ZEB1 is an EMT‐related transcription factor that subsequently promotes the…

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Endometrioma, Fertility, and Assisted Reproduction

Endometriosis can negatively impact a woman’s health and quality of life. Surgery has been considered the primary treatment to overcome infertility in cases of ovarian endometrioma. Patients struggling with endometriosis often pursue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) due to fertility issues. The management of ovarian endometrioma, which is a prevalent phenotype, is challenging and controversial, especially in the context of ART. In the present review, Dr. Garcia-Velasco group from Spain aim to assess the latest findings concerning fertility issues, endometrioma, and…

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Exosome: a new avenue for endometriosis research

Endometriosis affects 10% of reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this disease remains mysterious, with a lack of effective biomarkers necessitating surgical intervention for diagnosis. This creates an urgent need for accurate noninvasive diagnostic tests and the identification of effective therapeutic targets to improve clinical outcomes for women with endometriosis. Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between the etiology of endometriosis and immune dysregulation in endometriosis patients. Exosomes, range in size from 30 to 100 nm in diameter, are a…

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Mistletoe as a Potential Candidate for Endometriosis Treatment

Endometriosis, one of the common benign gynecologic disorders, is defined as the ectopic presence of endometrial cells outside of the uterine cavity. Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, the most accepted hypothesis is that endometrial cells pass through retrograde menstrual flow and implant in the abdominal cavity.  Some investigators suggested that peritoneum of endometriosis patients might attribute a pro-inflammatory environment, promoting the occurrence of endometriosis. Among various kinds of molecules which are related to the development and progression…

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The role of circulating microRNA's in Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder. This disease affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women and 20% to 50% of infertile women. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is an essential transcriptional regulator coordinately regulating multiple genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis. SF-1 is known to play an extraordinarily important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate SF-1 expression in endometriosis are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals. Recently,…

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Can we Inhibit the Survival of Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecological inflammatory disease. The current anti-estrogen therapies can be prescribed only for a short time due to the undesirable side effects on menstruation, pregnancy, bone health, and recurrence. Therefore, the development of specific therapy which targets abnormal molecular pathways in endometriosis is highly required. ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT are the well-studied survival pathways which regulate proliferation, survival, and apoptosis of the cells by integrating multiple intracellular signaling modules. The role of ERK1/2 or AKT signaling in proliferation,…

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Anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of "Quercetin" on endometriosis

Quercetin is a major flavonol that is mainly derived from capers and involves a daily consumption of approximately 25–50 mg through various vegetables. In recent studies, Quercetin is reported as a functional compound in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This compound also shows a wide range of apoptotic effects on cancer cells. Specifically, Quercetin enhances cell death and inhibits cell proliferation of hormone-related cancers including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer. However, the curative function of quercetin in human endometriosis…

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Does ovarian endometrioma damage the ovarian reserve?

Ovarian endometriomas are commonly present in 17% to 44% of women with endometriosis and are often associated with infertility and pelvic pain. There are several treatment options including surgical treatment. Cyst excision is associated with better results in terms of postoperative pain relief, pregnancy rates, and cyst recurrence rates compared to non-excisional techniques. A recent meta-analysis, however, has questioned the safety of the excisional technique, since it may be associated with a significant postoperative reduction of ovarian reserve as measured…

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Does deep infiltrating endometriosis affect sexual activity?

Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases in women of reproductive age, and pelvic pain and infertility are the most frequent complications. There are three different type of endometriosis lesions; superficial lesions, deep lesions, and ovarian cysts. In the patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), the depth of infiltration seems to correlate with the intensity of pain, commonly presented as the form of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, CPP, dyschezia, and dysuria. Therefore, DIE is strongly associated with a significant reduction…

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Programmed cell death 4 suppresses endometriosis by inhibiting autophagy and NF-κB/MMP2/MMP9 signal pathway

Endometriosis is a kind of benign disease but shares many similar features with cancers, such as abnormal cell migration, invasion, and unrestrained growth. It has been known that some genes are expressed differentially in eutopic endometrium of EM patients compared with control endometrium. However, the cellular and molecular characteristics of eutopic endometrium in patients with EM have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies show that PDCD4 is a novel tumor suppressor which plays important roles by inhibiting protein translation or…

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IL-37 regulates ectopic endometrial stromal cells to prevent endometriosis

Endometriosis has been identified as a chronic inflammatory disease. It has been shown that in the plasma and peritoneal fluid, women with endometriosis exhibit aberrant numbers of immune cells and concentrations of cytokines and chemokines that promote a chronic inflammatory environment compared with healthy women. More specifically, expression of some cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13, in the follicular and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis differ from that of women without. Interleukin-37 is…

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Inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway for the treatment of endometriosis.

Dr. Matsuzaki et al. (2018) published a paper entitled ‘In vitro and in vivo effects of MK2206 and chloroquine combination therapy on endometriosis’ showing that the efficacy of MK2206, an Akt inhibitor, in combination with chloroquine for inducing autophagy in endometriosis. Dr. Ferrero group from Italy agreed that the rationale of this study is based on evidence of the important role displayed by PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, and there are two preclinical studies showing these drugs were…

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3,6-DHF suppresses the invasive properties of endometrial stromal cells through the Notch signaling

Dr. Zhou group reported recently that 3,6-DHF can inhibit the development of EMT, migration, and invasion of endometrial stromal cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Endometriosis is a condition in which the layer of tissue (glands and mesenchyme) that normally covers the inside of the uterus grows and infiltrates outside of it. Studies have found that adhesion, invasion, and growth of endometriosis are regulated by multiple factors. Interaction of epithelial and interstitial cells, especially epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), may exert an…

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How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers?

Endometriosis, a chronic condition characterized by cells similar to the uterine lining that exist outside of the uterus, is estimated to impact 10% of women of reproductive age. In the USA, that approximates to some 7.4 million women. Endometriosis has been documented to adversely impact multiple aspects of women and girls’ lives. Despite growing recognition that endometriosis symptoms often begin in adolescence, research with adolescent populations is scarce. Thus, Dr. Gupta’s group from George Mason University aims to qualitatively examine…

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Elevated levels of adrenomedullin in eutopic endometrium and plasma from women with endometriosis.

Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the eutopic endometrium, commonly in the peritoneum of the pelvis and in pelvic organs, and often causing scarring and pain. The nonspecific nature of endometriosis symptoms makes the disease difficult to diagnose, and confident diagnosis usually requires visualization of ectopic lesions during surgical exploration. Recently, Kim et al. and others demonstrated that the IL-6–STAT3–HIF1A pathway is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Both STAT3…

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A prospective cohort study examining meat and fish consumption and endometriosis risk.

Endometriosis is a benign, estrogen-dependent, gynecologic condition with a prevalence of ~10% in women of reproductive age. There has been an increased interest in the identification of modifiable risk factors for endometriosis including diet. Diet may influence endometriosis risk through its influence on steroidal hormones. For example, red meat has been shown to decrease sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and increase estradiol concentrations, while fish oil has been associated with lower circulating levels of series prostaglandins and decreased inflammatory symptoms, as…

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Endometriosis in a Man as a Rare Source of Abdominal Pain

Endometriosis occurs when a tissue resembling endometrial glands and stroma grows in ectopic sites, commonly causing infertility and pain. Endometriosis has largely been found in women of reproductive age. However, in extremely rare cases, it is also found in men with a total of 16 cases previously reported in the literature. In male endometriosis cases, it was most commonly found attached to the bladder, lower abdominal wall, and inguinal region. In this paper, published in Case Reports in Obstetrics and…

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How Artificial Intelligence Can Improve Our Understanding of the Genes Associated with Endometriosis.

Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. A number of studies have shown that endometriosis could have a genetic basis and numerous genes have been studied and proposed to help explain its pathogenesis. However, the large number of these candidate genes has made functional validation through experimental methodologies nearly impossible. Artificial intelligence using text mining (TM) technology has recently been implemented, enabling the automated retrieval of all candidate genes for a specific disease…

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Non-coding RNAs in endometriosis

The pathophysiological mechanisms causing the development of endometriosis, which is a heterogeneous disease remain enigmatic, and a lack of effective biomarkers necessitates surgical intervention for diagnosis. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, which are important regulators of cellular function, have been implicated in many chronic conditions. In endometriosis, transcriptome profiling of tissue samples and functional in-vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ncRNAs are key contributors to the disease process. In this review, Dr. Panir group from Women’s and Children’s Hospital Adelaide in Australia…

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