Demet Candaş Green

Demet is an editorial coordinator at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) responsible for editing and reviewing scientific elements of grant proposals. She holds a BS and an MS degree in Molecular Biology and Genetics from Boğaziçi University, Turkey; and a PhD in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from UC Davis. She trained as a post-doctoral scholar at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center before she launched a career as a scientific editor. 

Treatment of minimal endometriosis in infertile women

For women with mild/minimal endometriosis, European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) recommends the removal of endometriotic lesions to improve fertility and increase pregnancy rates. For women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment, there is ongoing debate whether surgical removal of endometriosis improves reproductive outcomes. Although ESHRE guidelines state that surgical removal of the lesions can be considered before assisted reproductive treatment, they acknowledge that the benefit of surgery is not well established in these cases. This paper discusses the available…

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Progesterone resistance can cause endometriosis

Progesterone is a steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum of ovaries. Abnormal progesterone signaling (i.e., progesterone resistance) in the endometrium has been implicated in the establishment of eutopic and ectopic endometrial implants. Several causes for faulty progesterone signaling have been suggested: (1) congenial – resulting from maternal and neonatal preconditioning, which means newborn progesterone resistance may persist through adolescence; (2) inflammation – as progesterone action is crucial for decreasing inflammation in the endometrium; (3) retrograde menses – via peritoneal inflammation;…

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A key cytokine in endometriosis can be targeted for endometriosis treatment

Immune system dysfunction has been implicated in the development of endometriosis. One study showed that 95% of cells found in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis are macrophages with impaired phagocytic function, which are unable to eat away unwanted cells, molecules, and other targets present in this fluid. This kind of failed immune surveillance is suspected to be involved in the growth and survival of endometrium outside of the uterus, which results in endometriosis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a…

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Role of immune cells in endometriosis

Immune cells have essential functions in the body such as detection and clearance of abnormal cells and debris. One of the possible mechanisms for the development of endometriosis is proposed to be the impaired function of immune system cells in recognizing and removing menstrual debris. Natural killer cells form about 15% of all circulating white blood cells and are tasked with detecting and killing malignant or infected cells. Studies have shown that altered peripheral blood NK cells, peritoneal NK cells…

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Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase as biomarkers for endometriosis

When it comes to the diagnosis of endometriosis, the gold standard is a visual inspection by laparoscopy followed by histological confirmation. Laparoscopy is an invasive surgery. A noninvasive diagnostic tool for endometriosis is highly desirable; however, there are no validated biomarkers to date that can detect endometriosis with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. This current study by Ekarattanawong et al. aimed to investigate whether the plasma activities of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), can be used…

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Is operation the best option for infertile patients with digestive endometriosis?

A severe form of endometriosis affecting 8-12% of women with deep endometriosis is bowel endometriosis. Bowel involvement with associated infertility is a serious challenge for gynecologists who must choose between two main therapeutic options: surgery or medically assisted procreation (e.g. IVF/ICSI). Surgical management requires the intervention of a highly trained team as it can be technically difficult, cause complications, and in the case of ovarian involvement (endometrioma), it may result in the reduction of the ovarian reserve. Therefore, while surgical…

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Urocortin 1 as a noninvasive diagnostic marker for endometriosis

Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) is a neuropeptide secreted by epithelial cells of the endometrium. It promotes endometrial differentiation to help with embryo implantation. Endometriotic lesions were shown to be rich in Ucn1, suggesting a potential role for Ucn1 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Currently, endometriosis is diagnosed by visual examination of the lesions by laparoscopy and subsequent histological confirmation. Because this is an invasive procedure, many patients go undiagnosed, resulting in delayed treatment and advanced disease. Development of the reliable and…

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Zinc and lead levels in blood are altered in endometriosis

Trace metals are metals usually present in small but measurable amounts in the body. They are needed by living organisms to function properly and when depleted, can be replenished through diet and environmental exposures. Some common trace metals include iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, cobalt, lead, manganese, and cadmium. Many trace minerals have been shown to possess endocrine-disrupting properties in several toxicological and epidemiological studies. However, their roles in endometriosis remain unknown. A study recently published by Lai et al. investigated…

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Characteristics and location of extrapelvic endometriosis

The authors of this study reviewed the medical records of 1000 women with endometriosis from two geographical areas, New Haven, US and Crete, Greece over a 20-year period with a goal of identifying the presence and location of extrapelvic endometriosis and its associated characteristics. Extrapelvic endometriosis refers to the endometriotic tissue attached to the areas other than uterus-proximal locations such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterine ligaments and the surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Of the 1000 women studied, 200 cases were identified…

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Endometriosis increases the risk of miscarriage

This systematic review was based on four studies in literature and included a total of 31,167 pregnant women with endometriosis. Several studies were previously performed to establish the association between endometriosis and pregnancy loss with contradictory results. This somewhat large data set revealed a higher risk of early miscarriage in spontaneously pregnant (without the aid of medically assisted techniques) women with endometriosis. The authors offered several explanations for the potential association of endometriosis and miscarriage:  (1) Local and systematic inflammation…

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Environmental toxins and endometriosis

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic chlorine contaminants that were widely used in industry due to their excellent physicochemical properties. However, they were banned in the US and the rest of the world in 1979. PCBs are highly stable and resistant to environmental degradation. Thus, they persist in both the environment and body. PCBs are fat-soluble and may concentrate in the human body through the food chain. This review article from by Yao M et al., from Zhejiang University, China, published…

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Does endometriosis increase skin cancer risk?

Two major types of skin cancer are melanoma, which is the least frequent type but with highest metastatic potential; and non-melanoma skin cancers which include basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Several risk factors are identified for skin cancer – sun exposure, family history of skin cancer, genetics, etc. Recent studies also suggested that a history of endometriosis increases the risk of melanoma skin cancer. Farland and colleagues extend these studies to examine the association between endometriosis and the…

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Surgical treatment of colonic endometriosis

In this study, the authors provide a brief report published in the journal "The American Surgeon" which retrospectively reviewed the therapy outcomes in eight consecutive patients who had a laparoscopic surgical intervention for deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) at Anne Arundel Medical Center. The goal was to compare "segmental bowel resection" or "excision of local lesions" for colonic endometriosis in terms of therapy and quality of life outcomes. All eight patients had undergone extensive preoperative workup including prior diagnostic laparoscopies as well as CT…

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Women with endometriosis suffer from anxiety and depression

Endometriosis is considered a disabling condition that may significantly affect social relationships, sexuality and mental health of patients. Women who suffer from endometriosis report high levels of anxiety and depression and other psychological disorders. In this review article, the authors discuss the impact of anxiety and depression in the management of endometriosis in affected women. Several studies have found an association between endometriosis and psychological diseases; depression and anxiety are the most common ones. These psychological diseases influence the severity…

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How rats can help improve colon endometriosis treatment in humans

Colorectal endometriosis forms about 3–37% of all deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) cases. DIE is a highly invasive type of endometriosis, occurs when ovarian endometriomas overgrow and rupture, releasing their contents into the abdominal and pelvic cavity, resulting in the formation of new lesions of endometriosis outside of ovaries. The management of DIE in the colon is mainly surgical, either the endometriotic nodule in the colon is excised by shaving or the segment of the affected colon is removed altogether. Removal…

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