Demet Candaş Green

Demet is an editorial coordinator at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) responsible for editing and reviewing scientific elements of grant proposals. She holds a BS and an MS degree in Molecular Biology and Genetics from Boğaziçi University, Turkey; and a PhD in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from UC Davis. She trained as a post-doctoral scholar at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center before she launched a career as a scientific editor. 

Can early-life exposures affect endometriosis development later in life?

Endometriosis is a complex disease with possible multifactor contributors. So far, inflammatory, immunogenic, genetic, and environmental factors have all been associated with endometriosis. In addition, it is possible that different types of endometriosis lesions – peritoneal, ovarian, and deep infiltrating – may all have different origins and pathogenic mechanisms. A recent multi-country study called FEELING (Factors associated with the development of Endometrioma and dEep infiltratING endometriosis) investigated the clinical, lifestyle, and environmental factors associated with all three subtypes of endometriosis…

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Gal-3 can be a pharmacological target in endometriosis treatment

Galectins are known to play a significant role in angiogenesis, which is a key event contributing to the development of many disease conditions, one of which is endometriosis. Past studies, upon examining several human endometriotic lesions, showed that Galectin-3 (Gal-3) was overexpressed in the endometrium of women with endometriosis compared to that of women without endometriosis; and in peritoneal as well as deep infiltrating endometriotic lesions. These findings formed the basis of the current study, which investigated a possible role…

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Self-management of endometriosis symptoms: from Australia

Effective self-management techniques and lifestyle changes may play an important role in the management of endometriosis symptoms by many women. Due to various reasons such as limited effectiveness of some medications, potential side effects, availability of medical resources, self-desire to take more control over own health; many women might turn to self-care strategies for management of their endometriosis symptoms. This study by Armour et al. aimed to determine the kinds of self-management strategies used by women with endometriosis. By surveying…

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Bowel endometriosis: What you need to know

When the endometrial tissue infiltrates the intestinal walls and reaches inside the intestines, this condition is called "bowel endometriosis". It is estimated that between 3.8% and 37% of women with endometriosis are affected by bowel endometriosis. The endometriosis lesions infiltrating intestines can have different characteristics such as the number and size, how deeply the intestinal wall is infiltrated, and what percentage of the intestines are affected. All of these characteristics contribute to the symptoms observed and treatment strategies adopted. While…

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HOXA-10 levels are related to infertility in endometriosis patients

The current study by Ozcan et al., published in the European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology aimed to investigate the levels of HOXA-10 gene in fertile versus infertile women with endometriosis. HOXA-10 protein (expressed by HOXA-10 gene) is normally elevated in human endometrium during implantation and its levels increase dramatically during the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, which roughly corresponds to Day18 to Day25 of a normal menstrual cycle. According to the present study, the HOXA-10 levels…

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The effect of endometriosis on preterm birth risk

Some studies show that women with endometriosis develop significant complications during pregnancy that lead to preterm labor, and newborns of these women often need neonatal intensive care unit admissions. However, other studies argue that endometriosis have no significant effect on pregnancy outcomes. This current study by Perez-Lopez et al. aimed to evaluate the association between endometriosis and preterm birth risk in pregnant women with endometriosis either spontaneously conceived or used ART. Also studied are several secondary outcomes such as the…

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Does asthma increase the risk of endometriosis?

Previous studies have shown an association between asthma and endometriosis but with inconsistency. It is still unclear whether women who have asthma are at a higher risk of endometriosis than women without asthma symptoms. Peng et al., conducted a large nationwide retrospective study, studied data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Database identified 7,337 women aged 12-50 years with newly diagnosed asthma or using asthma medications, and 29,348 age-matched women without asthma in an attempt to investigate the association between asthma…

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Body Mass Index and IVF outcomes in non-obese endometriosis patients

Endometriosis and body mass index (BMI) are inversely related, meaning obese women are at a lower risk of developing endometriosis. Similarly, women with lower BMI are considered high risk for severe types of endometriosis. The severity of endometriosis brings about lower reproductive chances. All of these facts indicate higher BMI among women with endometriosis may lead to an increased reproductive outcome in these patients. Garalejic et al. investigated the effect of BMI on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in endometriosis…

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Can grapefruits and oranges be used for treatment of endometriosis?

Naringenin is a plant-based nutrient found abundantly in grapefruits and oranges with well-known anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant properties. Previous studies showed that naringenin could modify the estrogen receptor signaling, suggesting a role for naringenin in endometriosis. The current study performed by Park et al., from College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, aimed to investigate whether naringenin affects the viability of endometriosis cells, and identify the signaling molecules that mediate naringenin’s effects on these cells. The authors utilized several techniques…

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Stress affects endometriosis negatively

Stress contributes to many chronic health problems – endometriosis is one of them. Given that women with endometriosis are under more stress and pain, often with the added stress of infertility, it is important to understand the relationship between stress and the development of endometriosis, which could lead to the identification of therapeutic strategies that alleviate stress in endometriosis patients and slow the progress of their disease.It was previously shown that stress promoted the growth of endometriotic lesions, and luckily,…

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Gestational diabetes risk in women with endometriosis

Gestational diabetes (GD) is a common complication in pregnancy with several negative consequences for both mother and baby.  The risk of developing GD increases with maternal age and body mass index (BMI). Women with endometriosis conceive later than fertile women, a fact that may contribute to the increased risk of GD in women with endometriosis. However, studies of GD risk in women with endometriosis have shown contradictory results. Dr. Perez-Lopez et al. from Zaragoza, Spain, carried out a systematic review to…

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Treatment of minimal endometriosis in infertile women

For women with mild/minimal endometriosis, European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) recommends the removal of endometriotic lesions to improve fertility and increase pregnancy rates. For women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment, there is ongoing debate whether surgical removal of endometriosis improves reproductive outcomes. Although ESHRE guidelines state that surgical removal of the lesions can be considered before assisted reproductive treatment, they acknowledge that the benefit of surgery is not well established in these cases. This paper discusses the available…

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Progesterone resistance can cause endometriosis

Progesterone is a steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum of ovaries. Abnormal progesterone signaling (i.e., progesterone resistance) in the endometrium has been implicated in the establishment of eutopic and ectopic endometrial implants. Several causes for faulty progesterone signaling have been suggested: (1) congenial – resulting from maternal and neonatal preconditioning, which means newborn progesterone resistance may persist through adolescence; (2) inflammation – as progesterone action is crucial for decreasing inflammation in the endometrium; (3) retrograde menses – via peritoneal inflammation;…

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A key cytokine in endometriosis can be targeted for endometriosis treatment

Immune system dysfunction has been implicated in the development of endometriosis. One study showed that 95% of cells found in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis are macrophages with impaired phagocytic function, which are unable to eat away unwanted cells, molecules, and other targets present in this fluid. This kind of failed immune surveillance is suspected to be involved in the growth and survival of endometrium outside of the uterus, which results in endometriosis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a…

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Role of immune cells in endometriosis

Immune cells have essential functions in the body such as detection and clearance of abnormal cells and debris. One of the possible mechanisms for the development of endometriosis is proposed to be the impaired function of immune system cells in recognizing and removing menstrual debris. Natural killer cells form about 15% of all circulating white blood cells and are tasked with detecting and killing malignant or infected cells. Studies have shown that altered peripheral blood NK cells, peritoneal NK cells…

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Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase as biomarkers for endometriosis

When it comes to the diagnosis of endometriosis, the gold standard is a visual inspection by laparoscopy followed by histological confirmation. Laparoscopy is an invasive surgery. A noninvasive diagnostic tool for endometriosis is highly desirable; however, there are no validated biomarkers to date that can detect endometriosis with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. This current study by Ekarattanawong et al. aimed to investigate whether the plasma activities of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), can be used…

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Is operation the best option for infertile patients with digestive endometriosis?

A severe form of endometriosis affecting 8-12% of women with deep endometriosis is bowel endometriosis. Bowel involvement with associated infertility is a serious challenge for gynecologists who must choose between two main therapeutic options: surgery or medically assisted procreation (e.g. IVF/ICSI). Surgical management requires the intervention of a highly trained team as it can be technically difficult, cause complications, and in the case of ovarian involvement (endometrioma), it may result in the reduction of the ovarian reserve. Therefore, while surgical…

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Urocortin 1 as a noninvasive diagnostic marker for endometriosis

Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) is a neuropeptide secreted by epithelial cells of the endometrium. It promotes endometrial differentiation to help with embryo implantation. Endometriotic lesions were shown to be rich in Ucn1, suggesting a potential role for Ucn1 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Currently, endometriosis is diagnosed by visual examination of the lesions by laparoscopy and subsequent histological confirmation. Because this is an invasive procedure, many patients go undiagnosed, resulting in delayed treatment and advanced disease. Development of the reliable and…

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Zinc and lead levels in blood are altered in endometriosis

Trace metals are metals usually present in small but measurable amounts in the body. They are needed by living organisms to function properly and when depleted, can be replenished through diet and environmental exposures. Some common trace metals include iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, cobalt, lead, manganese, and cadmium. Many trace minerals have been shown to possess endocrine-disrupting properties in several toxicological and epidemiological studies. However, their roles in endometriosis remain unknown. A study recently published by Lai et al. investigated…

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Characteristics and location of extrapelvic endometriosis

The authors of this study reviewed the medical records of 1000 women with endometriosis from two geographical areas, New Haven, US and Crete, Greece over a 20-year period with a goal of identifying the presence and location of extrapelvic endometriosis and its associated characteristics. Extrapelvic endometriosis refers to the endometriotic tissue attached to the areas other than uterus-proximal locations such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterine ligaments and the surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Of the 1000 women studied, 200 cases were identified…

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