Kasthuri Nair

Kasthuri is currently pursuing a Bachelors of Science in Molecular and Cellular Biology at Johns Hopkins University. She has a passion for medical writing that was first ignited in 2015 and hopes to pursue a career in medical journalism. 

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Play a Role in Endometriosis Related Infertility

In their paper titled “Endometriosis-associated infertility: GDF-9, AMH, AMHR2 genes polymorphisms,” De Conto et al. attempt to elucidate the mechanism that leads to endometriosis-related infertility. In short, the authors hypothesize that there is a connection between polymorphisms in the Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) gene, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) gene, and AMH receptor (AMHR2) that can subsequently lead to endometriosis-associated infertility. The details of this study are published within the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. The experimental group for this experiment…

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Serum AMH Levels Play an Important Role In Fertility Preservation

One of the options available for women who suffer from endometriosis related infertility is cryopreservation. This option is only viable if the woman in question does not suffer from the low ovarian reserve. Garavaglia et al. suggest using pre-surgical serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels as a biomarker to gauge follicle density and subsequently ovarian reserve levels in women who wish to partake in ovarian cortical tissue cryopreservation. The results of their study are delineated in an article titled “Fertility Preservation…

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Endometriosis and Psychological Health: Butterflies from Deep Wounds

Endometriosis is a grueling disease in every sense of the word; however, most of the discussions center on the physical manifestations of the disease. Facchin et al. veer from the beaten path and examine the impact endometriosis have on a women’s psychological health. The authors believe that their study differs from others of its kind because it examines the individual differences. In other words, what factors associated with endometriosis can impact a woman’s psychological well-being? This study has recently been…

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Breast Feeding Can Reduce the Risk of Endometriosis

In their publication titled “History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study,” Farland et al. examine the benefits of breast feeding. The authors initially hypothesize that the length of lactation in women that have been pregnant relates to that individual’s risk of endometriosis. Additionally, they presume that the most influential factors in the relationship above between endometriosis risk and breast feeding are the length of exclusive breast feeding, defined as breast feeding before the start of…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis: Epigenetics

In this chapter titled “A Review of the Epigenetic Contributions to Endometriosis,” Grimstad and Decherney examine various epigenetic influences that drive endometriosis disease progression. The epigenetic alterations they discuss include DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin architecture changes, nuclear receptor modulation, hormone modulation, and progesterone receptor resistance, as well as changes in the expression levels of miRNA, aromatase, steroid factor-1, COX-2, HOXA10, FOX01, IGFPB-1, C/EBPα, and E-Cadherins. They also briefly discussed other less prominent epigenetic studies. The authors claim that epigenetics…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis: Surgery

Surgery is one of the treatment options offered for individuals with endometriosis. With that in mind, there are a variety of surgical procedures that can be offered to an individual with endometriosis. In the chapter titled “Surgery and Endometriosis,” Zanelotti and Decherney discuss all the options available for a variety of Endometriosis types. For example, they talk about ovarian endometriomas and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). They also describe numerous surgical techniques such as traditional laparoscopy, Laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation (LUNA),…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis: Fertility

Infertility can be a significant problem for many women who are suffering from endometriosis. In their chapter titled “Endometriosis and Fertility,” Evans and Decherney discuss the role of endometriosis in infertility and examine the usefulness of various fertility treatments. The first two subsections of this chapter attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie endometriosis and cause infertility. The first explanation points towards physical barriers that result in infertility and are a byproduct of endometriosis. The authors also state that…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis: Imaging

Hoyos, Johnson, and Puscheck wrote a chapter titled “Endometriosis and Imaging” that discusses the imagining technologies that can be used to diagnosis and examine individuals with the disease. This chapter evaluates three types of imagining, namely Ultrasound (US), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Computed Tomography (CT). It also examines how useful the aforementioned are at visualizing various types of endometriomas, peritoneal endometriosis and adhesions. The first line imaging technique for an individual with endometriosis is US, more specifically transvaginal ultrasound…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis: Fertility Preservation

“Endometriosis and Fertility” is a chapter dedicated to examining the role of endometriosis and endometriomas in decreasing fertility. In other words, the authors of this chapter discuss the relationship between endometriomas, surgeries, and infertility. Barnett, Banks and Decherney also deliberate the various outcomes, good and bad, of various endometriosis related procedures as they pertain to infertility. Next the authors discuss the options available to an individual with endometriosis who wishes to conceive. Their suggestions range from conceiving at earlier age…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis: Genetics

This chapter written by Krishnamoorthy and Decherney re-evaluate the literature concerning the genetics of endometriosis. The genetic mechanisms and signaling pathways that led to endometriosis are updated and the tools that help researchers find these abnormal genes and pathways are summarized.  The authors first prove that endometriosis has a genetic component to it since a woman with an immediate family member with the disease has a higher chance of getting the disease. Heritability has also been shown to increase the…

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Updates in the Field of Endometriosis

A lot of progress has been made thus far in the field of endometriosis. Research has discovered various genetic and epigenetic components involved in endometriosis. There has also been a progression in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease since there is currently a recommended protocol for imaging and surgical intervention. Additionally, the research has conducted on the link between endometriosis and infertility. This research has led to a better understanding of the relationship between the two and has created options for…

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Endometriosis Fertility Index Anticipates Pregnancy in Women with Endometriosis

Women are often afflicted by endometriosis during their reproductive years and can be faced with the prospect of infertility. These women also undergo treatments and procedures that can further affect their fertility. Consequently, in 2010, Adamson and Pasta came up with a system for predicting pregnancy after surgery. This scoring system is known as the endometriosis fertility index (EFI). In their paper published in Chinese Medical Journal titled “Endometriosis Fertility Index for Predicting Pregnancy after Endometriosis Surgery,” Li et al.…

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Combination Polymorphisms of Three "Estrogene-Related" Genes Increase the Risk of Endometriosis

Cardoso et al. recently published a paper titled “Combined Effect of the PGR +331C > T, CYP17A1 -34A > G and CYP19A1 1531G > A Polymorphisms on the Risk of Developing Endometriosis” in Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrician. The authors discuss how specific forms of certain genes namely PGR, CYP17A1, and CYP19A1 impact an individual’s risk of getting endometriosis. These 3 genes are thought to be involved in the estrogen pathway. This study was conducted over the course of…

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Dienogest for Endometriosis

Laganà et al. recently published an article in Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology titled “Clinical dynamics of Dienogest for the treatment of endometriosis: from bench to bedside.” This article explored the benefits of using Dienogest, a progestin, to manage Endometriosis. Dienogest is useful therapy because it has the advantages of 19-norprogestin and progesterone derivative classes without many of the side effects associated with these compounds. Furthermore, Dienogest has been shown to decrease estrogen, which is highly useful in…

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The Potential Molecular Mechanisms that Drive Endometriosis Progression

Endometriosis is a mysterious disease in that the exact mechanism that causes the illness is still at large. Yang et al. recently published a paper in the European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences that hopes to elucidate the molecular means by which Endometriosis comes to be. In their publication titled “Regulation of miR-33b on endometriosis and expression of related factors,” they hypothesize that miR-33b, a type of mi-RNA, could be a part of this elusive mechanism. The researchers collected…

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Factors that Impact IVF-ICSI Outcomes of live birth

Endometriosis affects women in their reproductive years, which often makes it difficult for women with this disease to reproduce. A paper published in the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics by Roux et al. from Marseille, France, addressed this issue of infertility in women with stage III and stage IV endometriosis by exploring the causes of IVF-ICSI failure. IVF/ICSI failure was determined using cumulative live birth rate (LBR). This paper titled “Factors associated with a poor prognosis for the IVF-ICSI…

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An Antagonist for Endometriosis Disease Progression: LINC00261

The molecular mechanisms surrounding endometriosis remain elusive to this day. Sha et al. from Wenzhou Medical University, China, reported that LINC00261, a long non-coding RNA, may play a substantial role in inhibiting the pathogenesis of this painful illness. Their paper titled “Long non-coding RNA LINC00261 inhibits cell growth and migration in endometriosis” was recently published in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research. This study relied on the findings of a previous study, which showed that LINC00261 is downregulated in ectopic…

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The Role of IL-35 in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis

The molecular mechanism that drives endometriosis remains elusive to this day. Zhang et al believe that interleukin 35 (IL-35) plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Their recent publication in Reproductive Sciences titled “Upregulation of Interleukin 35 in Patients With Endometriosis Stimulates Cell Proliferation” delineates the study where they observed the role of IL-35 and IL-35 receptor expression in individuals with endometriosis.  As a part of the survey, the researchers collected peripheral blood (PB), peritoneal fluid (PF), and…

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Endometrial Receptivity and Infertility

A study entitled “Endometrial receptivity in eutopic endometrium in patients with endometriosis: it is not affected, and let me show you why” was recently published in Fertility and Sterility explored the relationship between endometriosis and infertility. This study conducted by Miravet-Valenciano et al. from Rey Juan Carlos University of Madrid, Spain, specifically focused on the role of endometrial receptivity in individuals suffering from endometriosis. The authors reviewed previously conducted clinical and basic studies to understand whether there is any link between endometrial receptivity…

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Endometriosis : A Whole Body Disease

Endometriosis is a disease that impacts multiple parts of an individual’s body. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine recently published a paper by Alderman III et al. entitled “The Systemic Effects of Endometriosis” explores the various comorbidities that can affect individuals suffering from endometriosis. This article also investigates the mechanisms that ultimately result in these comorbidities. Clinical comorbidities associated with endometriosis include cardiovascular disease; ovarian, breast, cervical, and endometrial cancer as well as Lymphoma and Melanoma; autoimmune diseases atopic diseases; psychiatric disorders;…

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