Ellen Tumimbang, PhD

I graduated with Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of the Philippines Los Baños, Philippines. My work experience focuses on molecular biology, biotechnology, genetics, and biochemistry with emphasis on plants.
What motivated me to write for Endonews? I had an up-close and personal experience with uterine disease. I am interested to understand the molecular mechanism behind the cause of abnormal thickening of the endometrial lining and consequently lead to cancer in some cases. My goal in writing is to be an advocate to deliver clearly and understandably the research articles on endometriosis to my friends who are suffering with the disease.

Endometrium and HOXA 10 gene

Homeobox genes are transcription factors containing a conserved DNA sequence that encodes homeodomain which has a helix-loop-helix-turn structure. The homeodomain is responsible for recognizing and binding specific DNA sequences to regulate the expression of target genes. There are at least 39 HOX genes arranged in 4 clusters designated as HOXA, HOXB, HOXC, and HOXD in mice and humans. Hox gene expression is well characterized in the adult female reproductive tract.   Among the four HOX clusters, the HOX-A cluster is…

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Progesterone Receptors and Endometriosis.

Endometriosis is characterized as a chronic and inflammatory disease in which the specific cause has not been completely understood. Nonetheless, altered estrogen signaling and progesterone resistance are the common attributes of endometriosis. Progesterone resistance is partly attributed to a decrease in the expression of the intracellular progesterone receptors in the ectopic endometrium. Progesterone function is mediated by membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs), which are G-protein-coupled receptors that encoded by five different genes PAQR7 (mPRα), PAQR8 (mPRQβ), PAQR5 (mPRγ), PAQR6 (mPRδ), and…

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Enhanced local and systemic inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in women with endometriosis 

Endometriosis is not only characterized by the implantation of endometriotic tissue outside of the uterine cavity but also necessitates an impaired immune response. It is suggested that abnormal immunological mechanisms causing the dysfunction of immune cells and their mediators are involved in the development of endometriosis. In the absence of appropriate immune control, the ectopically disseminated endometrium continues to lodge, proliferate, and invade the underlying tissue forming endometriotic lesions that grow under the hormonal influence of the menstrual cycle. Cytokines…

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Hormone Control Related Genes in Women With Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease.  The development of endometriosis is stimulated by the specific ability to receive the estrogen that is needed for growth and differentiation of endometrial cells and has numerous biological functions in eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Estrogen is produced from testosterone and androstenedione by the action of enzyme P450 cytochrome aromatase, which is the product of the gene CYP19A1 gene.  The target cells can receive estrogen through estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ encoded by the genes ESR1…

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Cancer-associated mutations and endometriosis

Endometriosis is thought to benign gynecological disease. However, recent studies compiled in this review paper suggest that spontaneous somatic mutations are driven to occur during the cyclic bleeding resulting in endometriosis tissue undergoing repeated tissue injury and repair. Mutations are permanent and irreversible changes in the nucleotide sequences, generally caused by replication error, aging, exposure to cancer-causing agents, overproduction of estrogen, oxidative stress, etc. Cancer driver mutations called CAMs can arise from a replicative error on genes important in pathways…

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Menstrual Blood Proteins for Endometriosis Diagnosis

Endometriosis is a gynecological disorder characterized by endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The backflow of menstrual blood from the uterus through the fallopian tubes is thought to be the cause of endometrial tissue growing outside the uterine cavity when it was first described. The breakdown of the extracellular matrix tissue by proteolytic enzymes is a prerequisite to endometrial tissue implantation. Matrix metalloproteinases are proteolytic enzymes that play a role in degrading the basement membranes of the endometrium during the…

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